Cleve Backster (1924–2013), a polygraph expert, carried out experiments which he claimed showed a degree of conscious awareness in plants.
Scientists & Researchers
John Beloff (1920-2006) was a British psychologist, philosopher and parapsychologist, the author of numerous scholarly books and articles on the philosophy of mind and psi-related topics.
Italian psychologist and psychical researcher (1862-1943), author of number of books analysing psi phenomena.
American philosopher who in 1961 published a major study of psi phenomena, endorsing their existence and arguing that they constitute evidence for postmortem survival. This article describes and critiques his ideas.
American lawyer, judge, and politician (1799-1874), remembered as one of the first serious investigators of séance mediums.
American psychoanalyst and paranormal investigator (1908-1998) known for his three-year study of the ‘thoughtography’ practised by Ted Serios, and for his insightful theorising about the role of unconscious motivation in the manifestation of psi effects.
Swiss psychologist (1854-1920) noted for his book From India to the Planet Mars, a psychological study of the trance medium Hélène Smith.
Academic psychologist and psi investigator (1934-2010) whose many books covered topics such as transpersonal psychology, dreams and survival of death.
Hamlin Garland (1860-1940) was an American writer and psychical researcher, noted for his investigation of the Buried Crosses episode.
Seventeenth century clergyman (1636-1680) and member of the Royal Society, one of the first intellectuals to take a scientific interest in paranormal claims.